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Birth Cohort Differences in Sexual Identity Development Milestones among HIV-Negative Gay and Bisexual Men in the United States

Summary: A recent study examined trends in sexual identity development (SID) milestones by birth cohort based on a 2015 U.S. national sample of gay and bisexual men (GBM) (n = 1,023). The coming-out process for gay and bisexual men (GBM) involves crossing sexual identity development (SID) milestones: (1) self-awareness of sexual attraction to the same sex, (2) self-acceptance of an identity as gay or bisexual, (3) disclosure of this sexual identity to others, and (4) having sex with someone of the same sex. Birth cohort was independent of when men first felt sexually attracted to someone of ...
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Testing, Testing: Multiple HIV-Positive Tests among Patients Initiating Antiretroviral Therapy in Ethiopia

Summary: A recent ISPH study concluded that repeat HIV-positive testing (vs single occurrence re-testing), after a receiving a positive result appears to stem from doubt over their HIV status and whether they tested at another facility.  The odds of repeat (versus single) HIV-positive testing were lower among those who initially tested because of symptoms. Repeat HIV testing after a positive result has never been studied systematically and may provide insight into reasons for delayed linkage to care and providers need to be aware of this potential when counseling those who test HIV-positive. ...
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Trends in Daily Cannabis Use Among Cigarette Smokers : United States, 2002-2014.

Summary: A November 2017 study investigated estimated changes in the prevalence of daily cannabis use among current, former and never cigarette smokers from 2002 to 2014, in the United States.  Daily cannabis use occurs predominantly among cigarette smokers in the United States. Daily cannabis use increased among current, former, and never smokers over the past decade, with particularly rapid increases among youth and female cigarette smokers. Future research is needed to monitor the observed increase in daily cannabis use, especially among youths and adults who smoke cigarettes. Abstract:...
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An Experimental Investigation of Implicit HIV And PrEP Stigma: Evidence For Ancillary Benefits of Prep Use

Summary: Few studies have examined PrEP stigma using implicit measures designed to reduce demand characteristics in responding. This study examined implicit PrEP- and HIV-related stigma among gay and bisexual men using geospatial social networking applications (i.e., "hookup apps").  Participants were presented with four simulated online profiles (pre-tested for comparability) paired with each of the following characteristics: HIV-negative, HIV-positive, on PrEP, or Substance User. Participants rated the profiles on attractiveness, desirability, trustworthiness, likelihood of condom use, and ...
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Trends in depression prevalence in the USA from 2005 to 2015: widening disparities in vulnerable groups.

Abstract: BACKGROUND: Major depression is associated with significant disability, morbidity, and mortality. The current study estimated trends in the prevalence of major depression in the US population from 2005 to 2015 overall and by demographic subgroups. METHODS: Data were drawn from the National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH), an annual cross-sectional study of US persons ages 12 and over (total analytic sample N = 607 520). Past-year depression prevalence was examined annually among respondents from 2005 to 2015. Time trends in depression prevalence stratified by survey yea...
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Trends in cigarette consumption and time to first cigarette on awakening from 2002 to 2015 in the USA: new insights into the ongoing tobacco epidemic.

Summary: A new study published in August 2017 assesses trends in the number of cigarettes smoked per day (CPD) and percentage of smokers having their first CPD within 30 minutes of waking (time to first cigarette (TTFC)<30 minutes) among smokers from 2002 – 2015 in the USA overall, adjusting for demographics.  Trends in TTFC<30 minutes were also estimated by varying levels of cigarette consumption. Outcomes of the study suggest smokers today are consuming fewer CPD, yet are more likely to have their first cigarette earlier upon waking than they were 10-years ago.  Intervention and ...
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Demographic and Health Survey in Four Haitian Urban Slum Communities

Together with collaborators from the GHESKIO clinic, Weill Cornell Medical College, and the University of Minnesota, Dr. Denis Nash and Olga Tymejczyk from the CUNY ISPH presented results from the Demographic and Health Survey, that they recently completed in four slum communities in Port-au-Prince, Haiti, in 2016. The survey aimed to describe the population and the health status, access and utilization of those living in the slums of Village de Dieu, Cite Plus, Martissant Littoral, and Cite Eternel. The study’s innovative design, which adapted cluster area random sampling, and, with the h...
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Next Steps Toward Understanding the Relationship Between Cigarette Smoking and Depression/Anxiety Disorders: A Lifecourse Perspective.

Summary: Substantial research attention has been dedicated to longitudinal studies estimating the relationship between cigarette smoking and depression and anxiety disorders over the past two decades. In the December 2, 2016 issue of Oxford Academic, Renee Goodwin, PhD, MPH discusses next steps that may help move the field forward by identifying a possible causal link between smoking and depression/anxiety. Discovering the mechanisms which link cigarette smoking and depression/anxiety disorders from a population level perspective could theoretically lead to adding depression to the list of ris...
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Development and evaluation of a community-based buprenorphine treatment intervention

Summary: This study aimed to connect out-of-treatment individuals with opioid use disorder to buprenorphine treatment by developing a community-based buprenorphine treatment (CBBT) intervention in collaboration with New York City harm reduction agencies.  Harm reduction agencies operate in 33 states, Washington DC and Puerto Rico and provide sterile syringes and other health services to people who inject drugs. These sites are a key venue to reach out-of-treatment opioid users.  Agency staff at the harm reduction agency testing site were trained to provide (1) buprenorphine education, (2) m...
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Offering Self-administered Oral HIV Testing as a Choice to Truck Drivers in Kenya: Predictors of Uptake and Need for Guidance While Self-testing

Summary: In 2014, the joint United Nations Programme on In 2014, the joint United Nations Programme on HIV and AIDS (UNAIDS) launched its ambitious 90-90-90 HIV testing and treatment goals so that by 2020, 90% of people living with HIV will know their Status, 90% of people diagnosed with HIV will receive sustained antiretroviral therapy, and 90% of people receiving antiretroviral therapy will have viral suppression. The goal is to find that treatment as a prevention is effective in decreasing HIV incidence by encouraging that all people with HIV regardless of CD4+ T cell count should initia...
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